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Robotics Education Competition Foundation Inspiring students, one robot at a time.

The REC Foundation's Online Challenges provide a unique opportunity for students from around the world to participate in VEX Robotics Competition, VEX U andVEX IQ Challenge-based engineering competitions. Students can show off their work, win prizes, and even win a chance to compete at the VEX Robotics World Championship. The REC Foundation organizes Online Challenges in subjects such as robot construction, sustainable engineering, STEM education, CAD design, animation, and video production.

♦ 2018-2019 Online Challenges Coming Soon!

PLEASE NOTE THATONLINE CHALLENGES FOR THE 2018-19 SEASON HAVE NOT BEEN ANNOUNCED. We are currently evaluating proposed Online Challenges, and will update with approved challenges by or before September 2018.

You can view a list of winners for the 2017-18 season here: . You can also view winners on this page by selecting a Challenge below, then clicking on the blue “View Winners” button (the button may appear on the right side or bottom of your screen depending on the device you are using). N).

Have a Question? Post on the Forum.

Please post your questions in the sections on the Forums. For VRC questions, go to , and navigate to > > at the top. For VIQC questions, go to , and find the Sub-Forum under the Forum topic.

Prizes Eligibility

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First Prize in overall challenge, and Top Winner in College/University category:

Second Prize in overall challenge, and Top Winner for High School category:

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Grade Level Requirements
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Last season marked the tenth anniversary of the VEX Robotics World Championship, and after so many years of experience, we would love to see exactly what it is that you truly love about the program. Submit a photo that best represents what you love about being involved in robotics. Use photography to tell a complete story with one photograph, focusing on your favorite aspect of VIQC, VRC or VEX U. Compose a photo that conveys an emotion, specifically the feeling you experience when you are doing what you love most.

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Create an animated video or simulation that shows and explains aVEX Robotics Competition game. This is your chance to get creative and invent agame within the requirements of this challenge, and demonstrate the game being played in a virtual environment. Construct a “real” VRC game that is affordable, easily constructed by volunteers, obeys the laws of physics, has understandable rules, is interesting for participants to play and audiences to watch.

Each distinct season title has indicated the general gameplay format used:

During the filming of The Real World: Boston and Road Rules: Islands , the two casts met while the Real World cast was vacationing in TORY BURCH 45207 405 Syntheticgt;Nylon Blue Tory Burch yS1GL
. Producers set up a face-off where both teams would compete for a cash prize. The intensely competitive challenge brought in high ratings and this set ideas in motion to produce yet another spin-off series. After another face-off called AquaGames , hosted by Kit Hoover and Mark Long, between Womens Large Pipe Choker Jennifer Fisher qzucwJ
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in 1997, the Challenge series was born in 1998 with Road Rules: All Stars , and featured cast members from five different seasons of The Real World .

After All Stars , producers decided to include former castmembers of Road Rules in the series as well. In the next season, two six-member teams were sent around the world in a competition to see which show could best the other in head-to-head competition. The series followed the format for three years and brought in hugely successful ratings.

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, producers decided to add new elements to the series. In 2001, production began on Battle of the Seasons . This season, the first to depart from the previous six-member structure, brought in a large group of former cast members to compete in one location. Beginning with the first Battle of the Seasons , MTV added a fantasy challenge game to their website. Players "draft" cast members, a la fantasy baseball and cast members are given points for performing certain tasks, such as cursing or "hooking up."

After switching to the "vote off" format, the series would alternate between "Battle" seasons, including two seasons of Battle of the Sexes and themed Challenges which included the Gauntlet and Inferno seasons. Both the Gauntlet and Inferno seasons contained "showdown" matches between members of the two opposing teams. The cast member who lost the showdown would be sent home. The Gauntlet seasons featured an intra-cast dynamic as teams were forced to vote off cast members within their own groups into the showdown, while the Inferno seasons featured an inter-cast dynamic as teams were forced to vote off cast members from the other group into the showdown.

In 2005, Bunim-Murray Productions decided to invite new people to the Challenges who were never a part of either Real World or Road Rules and called them 'Fresh Meat.' This decision was forced, in part, because of the status of Road Rules at the time. While Road Rules had stopped production until further notice after its thirteenth season, Real World had just finished wrapping its sixteenth season in Womens Shoulder Bag Hope Womens Shoulder Bag Multicolour Black/Cream 13x40x29 cm B x H T Lola Ramona 3vjGhNIy
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miniseries, Are You the One? , and the Battle of the Bloodlines season of cast relatives. Beginning in 2018 cast members from other reality shows have been brought onto the challenge, including MTV UK's Ex on the Beach and Womens Lkb669 Vintage Belt Liebeskind fgCsdS6Z
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4.2) The authors mentioned that 2LTR circles is a labile product and marker of ongoing viral replication, however, there have been data suggesting that 2LTR circles are stable and long-lived ( Brussell A, AIDS 2003 ; Pierson TC, J Virol 2002 ). This may explain the lack of differences between the treated groups.

4.3) Another limitation that should be mentioned is the sampling limitation of gut biopsy in terms of frequency of cells and sampling area.

4.4) The authors' conclusion that the inability to reduce reservoir size in treated people to the level seen in LTNP means that additional interventions will be needed for functional cure is problematic. Although there is agreement that combination interventions will likely be needed for functional cure, the authors are attributing sole importance to the reservoir size as a marker of functional cure. We know that much of the total DNA is defective and that the VISCONTI patients actually had a readily detectable DNA (2 log) so there is much we do not know.

There remains concerns about using LTNP as a "gold standard" and the authors should reflect in the Discussion and conclusion based on their data 1) earlier treatment is superior to later treatment in reducing reservoir size, 2) LTNP is used as an example of the ability to moderately control viremia (not functional cure) in the absence of ART, 3) the levels of DNA that are important to achieving functional cure are unknown and many factors are involved. Evidence so far suggests that combination therapy will likely be needed to achieve functional cure.

In the revised manuscript, the meaning of “functional cure” has been clarified early in the Introduction as “virological control in the absence of therapy”.

We agree with the reviewers’ comment about the absence of similarity between the functional cure paradigm and LTNPs. In the new version of the manuscript, this statement has been removed.

To avoid any confusion and because indeed we do not present immunologic data in our study, the information on the role of CD8 + T cells in functional cure has been removed. We have also made the Introduction shorter and tried to avoid an overlap with the Discussion section.

Fifty-one patients had agreed to a flexible sigmoidoscopy and 10 rectal biopsies were taken from each patient with a volume of around 1 mm for each biopsy. Biopsies were taken from the mucosa of the upper rectum (10 cm from the anal margin) using single-use biopsy forceps (subsection “Blood and rectal biopsies”). The number of cells assayed per patient was added to the Results section (subsection “Total HIV-1 DNA levels in rectal biopsies are not different in early treated seroconverters, late treated patients and LTNPs”).

Some of the patients were receiving an integrase inhibitor (n = 9), but no difference in 2-LTR levels was observed when these were compared to the other ART-treated patients. There are several reports that have highlighted a transient rise in 2-LTR levels after a treatment switch to an integrase inhibitor. However, both Buzon et al. and Hatano et al. have noted that this rise is transient as the 2-LTR increase is most pronounced at week 2 after the switch to an integrase inhibitor, but decreases in the ensuing weeks. In our patients, we did not observe a difference in 2-LTR levels, which would support previous findings, as they had been treated over the long-term without a recent treatment switch in the weeks before sampling.

As suggested by the reviewers, the Discussion has been shortened. We hope that these changes are satisfactory.

We are aware of the current debate on 2-LTR circles as a marker of viral replication. In the revised manuscript we have highlighted the current controversy on the use of this marker (Discussion, third paragraph) and hope to have clarified the issue.

There are indeed practical and potentially ethical considerations in performing biopsies in patients such as LTNPs and in terms of a more invasive type of biopsy sampling in the sigmoid or small intestine. Our choice of the rectal area was driven by the fact that we had an excellent uptake by patients in another study and that it seems to be minimally invasive as compared to a more comprehensive biopsy protocol and could potentially be used in cure studies with minimal patient discomfort. By using 10 samples per patient we believe that we were be able to obtain a sufficient number of cells to detect and quantify HIV-1 DNA.

To highlight the practical issues, we have added a small section to the Discussion of the revised manuscript. These are indeed practical limitations that prevent the standardization of such sampling and hamper frequent monitoring. This has been added in the Discussion section. Notably, rectal sampling remains an invasive procedure as compared to blood sampling, which can be performed more frequently.

We absolutely agree with these comments and have attempted to make the necessary changes to the Discussion.

In our study, we have explicitly looked at various markers of the HIV-1 reservoir size and dynamics and compared results between our four patient populations. Our emphasis on reservoirs stems from the fact that data relating to HIV-1 DNA and viral rebound are available and suggest that the magnitude of the reservoirs is indeed important in terms of viral rebound and functional cure ( Statement Clutch RUBINO BW MOTORCYCLE B by Tony Rubino Tony Rubino S3IPAuq0G
). It is clear that a large proportion of this reservoir is not replicative competent however no absolute measurement of this reservoir component is available and we have therefore tried to improve our understanding of the reservoir by using several virological parameters.

We have not performed in-depth characterization of any immunological aspects which may be driving virological control and made comparison between our patient cohorts. However, recent evidence indicates that the functional cure state achieved by some patients is most probably a result of the interplay between immunological and virological aspects, the former remaining still poorly understood due to the low numbers of post-treatment controllers, the difference in T cell responses between elite controllers and post-treatment controllers and an absence of studies analysing innate immunity.

We agree with the reviewers that LTNPs represent an imperfect surrogate group for functional cure, however, we believe that they represent some of the presently best available examples of viremia control with limited immune suppression over the long-term and this in the absence of a better comparator group of patients.

In order to make these points clear, we have adapted the conclusion section of the Discussion and hope that these changes have clarified pending issues.

Eva Malatinkova

Ward De Spiegelaere

Pawel Bonczkowski

Maja Kiselinova

Karen Vervisch

Wim Trypsteen

Margaret Johnson

Chris Verhofstede

Danny de Looze

Charles Murray

Sabine Kinloch-de Loes

Linos Vandekerckhove

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Nationals of countries not listed above are required to apply for visas through the nearest Indonesian Embassy or consulate. Single-entry visas are valid for 60 days and fairly routine if pricey at USD50–100 depending on the individual country and prevailing exchange rates. Multiple entry visas are also available but, as the issuance policy varies in different embassies and is occasionally changed, it is best to inquire at your nation's Indonesian embassy well in advance of departure. Normally, Indonesian embassies and consulates stipulate 3-4 clear working days for processing; however, it may take at least one week.

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, . Those affected must have a sponsor in Indonesia, either personal or a company. The sponsor must go in person to the Immigration Head Office in South Jakarta ( Jakarta Selatan ) and must produce a photocopy of applicant's passport, a supporting letter and the applicant's photograph. When it is approved, the Immigration Head Office will send a copy of approval letter to the applicant.

For people arriving in Indonesia, there are several types of visas of the pre-approved variety, which include business, social-cultural, student, work and tourist, for example. Of these, a business visa only allows work that doesn't receive payment (such as sales visits to customers), and the work visa is the only one that allows full employment and is for 1 or 5 years, combined with a work permit from the Ministry of Manpower. Most other types of visas do not allow any sort of work to be done, even volunteer work, although there are some exceptions, such as religious and diplomatic visas. If you are unsure, ask the local Department of Manpower and Transmigration (DisNaKerTrans), not : your employer, the agent handling your documentation, or Immigration, as many employers and agents are ignorant of the law or are willing to lie about it to get you to work, and Immigration has no authority over employment. As with most countries, students are not allowed to work.

If there is a delay in processing your paperwork (e.g.: because the company doesn't yet have a licence to operate, or hasn't yet submitted the appropriate documents and requests to the government to employ foreigners), your employer can request from the Ministry of Manpower a temporary work permit as a stopgap, this is a letter that you should also have a photocopied copy.

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